The effect of light intensity on transpiration is dynamic. To mean that, there is a significant effect light intensity causes on a plant. The plant survives through the transpiration process which is germane to the growth and the green of a plant. However, to understand the effect of light intensity on transpiration, a detailed definition of transpiration must be given.
Transpiration of plants could be examined from the point that all plants, either small weeds or tall trees, need water. Plants need to get water into all its branches. To get water, the stomata on the leaves aides the transpiration process into permit water throughout the branches and leaves of the plants.
Water is absorbed from the root of all plants. Water is hence divided into proportions to the upper parts of the plant through the xylem. The xylem cells have thick walls through which water passes with the aid of the mesophyll cells in the leaves.
These mesophyll cells have very large intercellular spaces betwixt them, spaces that permit the evaporated water vapor collected before it goes out via the stomata which open and close periodically.
Plant growth relies on these series of symbiotic communication which involves light which plays a significant role. Of course, photosynthesis allows and permits the effect of plant metabolism processes that takes place and provides an energy that improves the speed of this process of transpiration.
Light intensity levels, however, affect the photosynthesis rates which is related to a plant’s ability to grow.
The importance of transpiration in the biology of plants is however in the orchestration of the loss of water by evaporation in terrestrial plants. This is done through the stomata or the intracellular cells as expressed above; the cells which are exposed to the walls of the cell surface.
The evaporation cells create a negative pressure in the xylem accompanied by a corresponding uptake in the root. A stoma (which is a singular stomata) is a tiny pore in the epidermis of a leaf or stem through which gases and water vapor passes.
The various structures of transpiration; that is, the rate of transpiration, is as influenced by both environmental factors of a particular environment and the morphological factor of a particular plant. Different environmental factors that could influence transpiration include high temperature due to light intensity, relative humidity, air circulation and porosity (which is the soil type).
The morphological factors that influence transpiration include the leaf surface, cuticle layer, the width of the stomata and the number of stomata. The heavy cuticle layer, the width of stomata and the number of stomata, all together, leads to a low transpiration rate.
After laying the foundation to transpiration and the plant, regard must be given to the fact that in plants, increasing light intensity to which the plants are exposed to can cause (or causes) the increase in the rate of the plant’s transpiration. Increased light intensity lowers the water potential of the leaf of a plant.
As the water potential of the leaf decreases, more water is passed through the guard cells which makes them more turgid. The guard cells are described as specialized cells in the epidermis of leaves, stems of plants are more so used to regulate gas exchange.
The turgor pressure of the guard cells leads to an opening up in the stomata to facilitate photosynthetic gas exchange resulting in transpiration. It should be clear that the guard cells perform the functions of the ability to regulate the opening and closing of the stomata by changing its shape. The guard cells are like an inflatable set of doors which eventually necessitates the opening between two cells wider or narrower.
Effect of light intensity on transpiration
With the established concepts behind transpiration, with the fact that any plant that would grow needs light, attention must be paid to the “intensity” of light. That is the intensity of sunlight. What happens when sunlight is too much on a plant cell?
What happens when sunlight hits a plant too much? Although transpiration through sunlight facilitates the ascent of the sap which is the liquid fluid which consists of water and which dissolves substances coming from the roots into the leaves of the plant.
As it has been written that transpiration is as influenced by various environmental factors, the rates of facilitation are higher on brighter days due to the sun and they are mostly lower on nights because of the soft weather. In the period of drought, it is most tragic for plants because water cannot be processed to nurture all parts of the plant.
However, because the transpiration process needs light, the rapid processing of transpiration is as influenced by the intensity of light and the leaf surface area of the plant. At this, the rate of sunlight is directly proportional to the rate of transpiration process.
The effect of light intensity, therefore, causes the opening of more stomata to facilitate photosynthetic gas exchange.
Also, it permits rapid transpiration processes because water evaporates more rapidly as the temperature rises due to intensive sunlight.
Also, plants’ rapid transpiration is ensured by light. As a result of proper light and sunlight which aids proper transpiration, an easy exchange of gases occurs to the plant. Also, it aids the development of the plant by its absorption effects and the transportation of mineral into the plant.
As explained above, transpiration is a process which entails the loss of water vapor through the stomata of plants. It can also be referred to as a process through which water reaching the leaves can be lost by evaporation through the stomata of leaves, pulling water through the xylem vessels.
Transpiration is although regarded as a necessary cost or an evil because although it’s an inevitable process in plants for its absorption and spread of water from the soil, its excesses could lead to wilting of plants. Also, it induces hardening, that is, an excess in transpiration induces the hardening of the soil and the plant which leads to weak resistance to moderate drought.
All of which light intensity on transpiration processes is a catalyst.
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