Formal Science / Chemistry Essay


Carbon, Oxygen, Hydrogen, and Nitrogen: Structure and covalent bonds

All matter consists of essential elements called atoms. Atoms consist of even tiny particles such as electrons, protons, and neutrons. Protons and neutrons live in an atom's nucleus and are similar in mass. Protons, however, have positive charges, while neutrons are without charge. Electrons possess a negative charge and orbit the nucleus in electron orbital or shells and are less massive than the other particles. Because electrons are 1836 times less powerful than any of neutrons or protons, the bulk of an atom's mass is in the nucleus, which is just 1/100,000th, the size of a whole atom.


There are three allotropic forms of carbon contained naturally: graphite, amorphous, and diamond. According to current reports, there is a fourth form, classified as "white" carbon.

There are two types of graphite: alpha and beta. Except for their crystalline structure, they have similar physical properties. It states that naturally occurring graphites produce as many as 30% of the rhombohedral (beta) form, while synthetic materials include just the alpha form. Through the mechanical process, the hexagonal alpha model can transform into the beta, and the beta form converts to the alpha when it is heated over 1000 °C

Carbon has a weight of 6 neutrons and 6 protons on the nucleus and 6 electrons on the outside, and this makes it heavier than hydrogen atoms. There are two shells around the nucleus for carbon since not every one of the 6 electrons can go on around the nucleus simultaneously, so only 2 electrons can fit in the inner shell and the rest on the other shell. It can retain around 8 electrons with the outer shell, making it much easier to combine with all other atoms and form even larger molecules. (Carr 2018)

Similar to other atoms, carbon is said to be unique since it can bind to an infinite extent with other carbon atoms; this is because it is small in size and can blend within larger molecules.


Oxygen is the third most abundant element present in the sun and plays a part in the carbon-nitrogen cycle, the mechanism once thought of like the sun and stars energy provider. Oxygen is known for the bright red and yellow-green shades of the Aurora under compelling circumstances.

Oxygen is an element formed by compounds through reactions with other elements. All the atoms are oxygen atoms, but they don't exist individually. Instead, they are separated and form oxygen molecules.

Due to the number of protons, neutrons, and electrons, oxygen is more massive than carbon and hydrogen. The oxygen atom contains eight protons, eight neutrons, and eight electrons around the nucleus. In the inner shell, there are 2 electrons because this is how much an inner shell will hold, but it holds six on the outer shell. Two oxygen bonds must share two electrons to form covalent bonds to create a molecule of oxygen.


While pure hydrogen is a gas, in our environment, we have very little of it. Hydrogen gas is light that unenhanced hydrogen will gain sufficient speed from collisions with other gasses to expel them from the atmosphere quickly. Hydrogen appears mainly on earth in conjunction with oxygen in water, but it also exists in organic materials such as coal, petroleum, living plants, etc. It is present in the atmosphere as the free element, but only by volume to the extent of less than one ppm. Hydrogen, the lightest of all gases, binds to create compounds with other elements— often explosively.

Hydrogen is utilized in diesel and petrol cars, carbon dioxide and water are produced by burning fuel. Each element has one form of an atom that can't separate into other substances. Many carbon compounds, together with all other components, include hydrogen and hydrogen forms compounds. Hydrogen compounds are usually referred to as hydrides, although the hydride describes compounds with an H-ion. (Carr 2018)

Hydrogen is the smallest type of molecule; it possesses a nucleus like every other atom, and the hydrogen nucleus consists of one proton and around the nucleus, there is one electron that passes around the nucleus. The nucleus of the proton has a strong electrical charge that is the electron's opposite.

Therefore, as hydrogen has one electron, two atoms of hydrogen must share one electron between the two to create a covalent bond, creating a molecule of hydrogen.


The cycle of nitrogen is one of the essential cycles in living organisms in general. Though nitrogen gas is fairly harmless, soil bacteria may fix the nitrogen into a usable form (as a fertilizer) for plants. In other terms, Nature produced a way for growing plants by providing nitrogen.

The composition of nitrogen contains seven protons, seven neutrons, and seven electrons. 2 Inner shell electrons and five outer ring electrons. What happens is that two nitrogen atoms must share three of the electrons to create three covalent bonds because there are 5 electrons on the outer shell. This then produces a molecule of nitrogen. Every one of the nitrogen atoms will count eight electrons in the outer ring by distributing six electrons on both ends of where the shells reach. On each atomCarbon, Oxygen, Hydrogen, and Nitrogen: Structure and covalent bonds, eight electrons indicate that the mutual electrons are secure because the outer ring is full.

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